The Family Tree of Captain James Cook (1728-1779)

Created and updated by Rod Fleck

Notes for James COOK

Born in a humble "clay biggin" near Thornaby
Registered as 'ye son of a day labourer'
Bound as a apprentice to Mr. John Walker a member of a shipping Firm of repute (not the Firm)
Master John Walker, discharged 20 Apr 1749 London.
Master, John Walker
Master, John Wilkinson
Master and Owner John Walker
Master John Walker
By order from Admiral Saunders
Survey part of the Coast and Harbours of Newfoundland aboard H.M.S. Antelope
Continue his Survey of the Newfoundland Coastline
Dividing the thumb from the fingers the whole length of the metacarpal bones.
Make preparations for a Voyage of Discovery in the
Pacific and the Transit of Venus, Society Islands.
1st Voyage of Discovery to locate the Great South Land and to observe the transit of Venus.
At 6 aboard the HMS Endeavour, Cook named it Point Hicks, now Cape Everard.
Originally named as Sting Ray Bay later renamed Botany Bay, Cook hoisted the English Colours, and in the name of His Majesty, King George III, took possession of our Country
River Thames. London at 3 pm after being at sea for 2 years 10 months 21 days
As Captain of H.M.S. Resolution (a Whitby built Cat) with H.M.S. Adventure as a back up Ship.
After a voyage of 3 years 17 days.
With various Maps and Charts showing the discoveries he made on his 2nd Voyage.
By King Edward III in honour of his achievements on his 2nd Voyage of Discovery.
Following the death of Captain Clements.
In search of the North West Passage from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean.
His body was dismembered, distributed amongst the Native Chiefs, and partly eaten.

James was the second Child born to James Cook, a Scot from Ednam in the Borders Region, Scotland, and Grace Pace the daughter of a Farm Labourer of Thornaby, North Yorkshire.

He was born on Wednesday the 27th day of October, 1728, in a small thatched cottage (known in those days as a 'Clay Biggin') within the farming village of Marton, on the outskirts of Middlesborough.

His Baptism was held at the Parish Church of Marten, known as Saint Cuthbert's; the Baptismal Register shows "Nov'r 3, 1728, James Ye son of a day labourer".

James received his basic education from Dame Mary Walker, the wife of the Farmer where his Father was employed at Marton Grange as a Farm Labourer.

In 1736 the family moved from Marton to Great Ayton, following the appointment of his Father as the Hind/Bailiff at Airyholme Farm, that was owned by Thomas Skottowe, the then Lord of the Manor.

Thomas Skottowe was a benevolent and kindly Master, who was very good to his tenants, and it was not long before he noticed that the youngest son of his new Farmer was a bright little boy.

At age eight James was enrolled by Thomas Skottowe, at his own expense in the Village School at Great Ayton, under the Schoolmaster Mr. W. Pullen; in the short time that he attended this School it is recorded that he showed a special aptitude for mathematics. Skottowe's interest in the lad did not end there, but followed him right throughout his life; (Skottowe was a man of some standing and weight within the Country, and many years later it was he that persuaded the local Member for Parliament to write to the Admiralty recommending Cook as the man most suitable to Command their Voyage of Discovery into the South Seas).

On leaving School, James worked on the Farm at Great Ayton with his Father, at the age of sixteen he left the Farm and was employed as a Shop Assistant for a William Sanderson, grocer and haberdasher and brother-in-law of Skottowe's Wife, at Staithes.

Staithes in the mid eighteenth century was a small Fishing and Sea faring Community, Sanderson's Shop was right on the sea front, in 1812 it was pulled down lest it should be washed away and rebuilt in its present position in Church Street by his successors in business.

From the shop James could watch the busy sea, seldom without a white sailed Ship passing up or down the coast; his friends were no longer of the land, but of the sea, it was here that he first learnt the rudimentary skills of navigation in the Staithes Cobles.

It was not long before he found out that life behind a Shop counter was not for him and he told Sanderson that he wished to go to Sea; in the April of 1746, at the age of 17, he was apprenticed to John Walker a Quaker ship-master and owner at Whitby, for three years; this was unusual, as a apprentice in those days was bound for eight years.

An "Indenture of Apprenticeship" was a solemn legal document, it set out the obligations of the apprentice and the duties of the Master to whom he was bound.

Each apprentice agreed, "to serve his Master faithfully, his secrets keep and his lawful commands gladly obey", the Master, for his part, agreed that "he would well and truly teach and instruct" his apprentice "the trade, mystery and occupation of a Mariner" and for the period of the apprenticeship "find and provide meat and drink, washing and lodging".

Whitby was in those days a busy Seaport where Ship Building and all the allied trades flourished, John Walker's house was in Haggersgate, on the west side of the river where Cook lodged with his master.

In 1752 following the death of his mother he moved to Grape Lane, on the east side overlooking the waterfront {it is still there to this day as a Museum to both Cook and Walker} the apprentices slept in his attic when not at Sea.

The Walkers were Quakers who believed that the training of young people should be based on persuasion and not on force, a boy who was slow in his response to orders was given a lowly task of sweeping or cleaning the ship.

This early training was to carry Cook throughout his life. The Walker ships were in the Coal Trade; they were known as 'Cats' and were extremely sturdy, stubby little Ships with flat bottoms in order to negotiate the shallow tidal harbours and sandy coastal waters that fringe the north easterly shore of England.

When the winters were severe the Colliers were laid up at Whitby and thoroughly overhauled, twenty years on when the Endeavour was holed and grounded on the Barrier Reef, James was able to draw on his early experience in the Ship's construction and maintenance.

James spent nine years in this trade, serving as a Servant for three (as they called their Apprentices in those days), and the remainder as Seaman and Mate aboard the Walker Ships.

According to the Muster Rolls of Whitby Ships, held by the Whitby Literary and Philosophical Society, in which James Cook sailed from 1747 to 1755, were:

Freelove - Master, John Jefferson - Servant
Three Brothers - Master, John Jefferson - Servant
Three Brothers - Master, John Jefferson - Seaman
Mary - Master, James Gaskins - Seaman
Friendship - Master, Richard Ellerton - Mate

In 1755 he left the Walker Bros., despite the prospects of being offered command of a Collier, and joined the Royal Navy at Wapping as a Able Seaman aboard the H.M.S. Eagle, a fourth rate, 60-gun ship, with a complement of 400 men and 56 marine commanded by Captain (afterwards Sir Hugh) Palliser; at that time moored in Portsmouth Harbour.

On the 24th July, thirty seven days after his entry into the Navy, he was rated as a Master's Mate, and on 30th July, 1757 he was transferred to the H.M.S. Solebay; he received his appointment as Master aboard the H.M.S. Penbroke, on the 18th of October, 1757.

(War against France, encompassing the American Colonies, was formally declared in May 1756, although the first shot was fired on the 10th of June, 1755.)

Following service against the French off the Canadian Coast, under date of 23rd September, 1759, his record shows - "Mr. Cook, Master, superseded and sent aboard the H.M.S. Northumberland by order of Admiral Saunders".

On 17th January 1761, Lord Colville records in his Journal that he had "direcected (sic) the storekeeper to pay the Master of the Northumberland, fifty pounds in consideration of his indefatigable industry in making himself master of pilotage of the River St. Lawrence"

This is the first official recognition that has been found of the fact that Cook had gone beyond the ordinary duties incumbent on every Master in His Majesty's service, viz.: "To observe all coasts, shoals, and rocks, taking careful notes of the same.

On the return of the Northumberland to Spithead, where she arrived on 24th October, 1762, her Master, James Cook was discharged - the Muster Roll noting "Superseded on 11th November, 1762.

He also received from Lord Colville for the Secretary of the Admiralty the following letter:

"Sir,--Mr Cook, late Master of the Northumberland, acquaints me that he has laid before their Lordships all his draughts and observations relating to the River St Lawrence, part of the Coast of Nova Scotia, and of Newfoundland.
On this occasion I beg to inform their Lordships that from my experience of Mr. Cook's genius and capacity, I think him well qualified for the work he has performed and for greater undertakings of the same kind. These draughts being made under my own eye, I can venture to say they may be the means of directing many in the right way, but cannot mislead any.
I am, Sir, your most obedient and most humble servant," "COLVILLE."

Before the close of the year Cook took upon himself further responsibilities as set forth in the following extract from the Register of St. Margaret's Church, Barking, Essex.

"James Cook of Ye Parish of St. Paul, Shadwell, in Ye County of Middlesex, Bachelor, and Elizabeth Batts, of Ye Parish of Barking in Ye County of Essex, Spinster, were Married in this Church by Ye Archbishop of Canterbury's Licence, this 21st day of December, One Thousand Seven Hundred and Sixty Two by George Downing,

Vicar of Little Wakering, Essex."

After their marriage they lived for a time at Shadwell, before Cook purchased a House at No. 88 Mile End Road, Mile End Old Town - both Suburbs of London - this was to remain their Home until after the death of Cook on Sunday, the 14th February, 1779.

On the 19th April, 1763, Cook received orders to join the H.M.S. Antelope at Portsmouth, "To carry you to Newfoundland in order to your taking a Survey of Part of the Coast and Harbours of that Island." Their first child, James, was born on Thursday the 13th of October, 1763, at St. James, Shadwell, while Cook was navigating Newfoundland; he returned to England in November, 1763, but was back to Newfoundland in the April of 1764.

On the 3rd of August, Cook left the Ship to take soundings in his Cutter off Noddy's Harbour; a few days later he met with a nasty accident: "It seems he had a large powder horn in his hand, when by some means not stated, the powder ignited the horn was blown up and burst in his hand, which shattered in a terrible manner, dividing the thumb from the fingers the whole length of the metacarpal bones" The injury to Cook's hand was later used as means of identification of his remains", prior to burial at Sea.

Nathaniel, their second child was born on Friday the 14th December, 1764 at Mile End Old Town, London.

Cook's Survey and the Charting of Newfoundland concluded on the 23rd of October, returning to England on the 11th of November, 1767, a few months after the birth of their third Child, Elizabeth.

Preparations for Cook's first Voyage of Discovery commenced in 1768, as it had been calculated that the Transit of Venus over the Sun would occur in 1769, and the best place to visually record this event was in the South Seas.

On March 28th, 1768 the "Earl of Pembroke" a Cat-built Bark built by Messrs Fishburn of Whitby was purchased for the voyage, after a refit it was renamed the "Endeavour Bark" : as there was another Ship named Endeavour in service in the Royal Navy, at this time.

In the 'Commissions and Warrants Book', under date 26 May, 1768, appears the following entry:

"Mr James Cook (2nd) 1st Lieutenant Endeavour Bark. E.H.,C.T.,C.S."
Having received his orders Cook proceeded to Deptford and hoisted his Pendant on H.M.S. Endeavour on 27th May, and at once started to prepare for sea.
He eventually sailed from Plymouth Harbour at 2 p.m. on 26th August, 1768, having as he states in his Journal, "94 Persons incl., Officers, Seamen, Gentleman and their servants; near 18 months' provisions, 10 carriage guns, 12 swivels, with good store of ammunition, and stores of all kinds" on board.

On this day, his Wife, Elizabeth, gave birth to their fourth Child, she named him Joseph; unfortunately he died 18 days later, while his Father was at sea, at their home at Mile End Old Town.

At 7am. on the 13th day of April, 1769, he dropped anchor in the Society Islands and made ready to record the Transit of Venus, which was sighted on the 3rd of June.

They left the Society Islands on the 9th August, sailing south to New Zealand, arriving there on the 7th October.

In the six and a half months that Cook stayed in these waters, he successfully charted both Islands, approx. 2400 miles of coast.

It was resolved because of the condition of the Ship to return to England by way of the East Indies.

"The good ship Endeavour got under way on 31st March 1770, with a favourable wind and clear sky, heading a little north of west, on 19th April 1770 Lieutenant Hicks sighted land extending from north east to west, distance five or six leagues", the low hill which was first seen was named Point Hicks after its discoverer.

At daylight on Sunday, 29th April, a bay was discovered, the Master was sent in to sound the entrance, the Ship following closely; the Endeavour anchored for the first time in Australian waters, about two miles from the entrance of Sting Ray Bay - now Botany Bay.

Cook and his party stepped ashore at approx. 3 pm that afternoon and remained there until the 7th of May, charting the foreshores and the rivers.

{Extract from his Journal shows}

"During our stay in this harbour I caused the English colours to be displayed ashore every day".

On Saturday, 13th July, 1771, he arrived back in England after an epic voyage lasting 2 Years 10 Months and 16 days to find that two of their four Children had died: Joseph, that he never saw on the 13th September, 1768 and Elizabeth on the 9th of April, 1771.

The Annual Register notes that Lieutenant James Cook was introduced to His Majesty, George III, on the 14th August, 1771, at St. James's when he: "Presented his Journals of his Voyage, with some curious Maps and Charts of different places that he had drawn during the voyage, and was awarded with a Captain's Commission."

Preparations for a second voyage were set in place with two Whitby Cats: the Drake that was renamed the Resolution, and the Raleigh was renamed the Adventure, after their re-fitting.

The Resolution and the Adventure set sail from Plymouth Sound on July the 13th, 1772, five days after the birth of Cook's fifth child, on Wednesday the 8th of July, that they named George; his life was but short and he died at their home at Mile End on Thursday the 1st of October, 1772.

Three years 16 days later after Circumnavigation of the World, Cook arrived back in England aboard the Resolution on 29th July, 1775 - Furneaux the Captain of the Adventure has missed the planned meeting in New Zealand and had arrived back a year earlier.

Cook was now fourty eight years old, he had spent thirty of these years almost constantly at Sea, his health had broken down and during his last voyage had suffered great pain from stomach ulcers.

He was offer the Captaincy of Greenwich Hospital, a well paid job that would allow him to have time at home and write the account of his last voyage and arrange for its publication; he took the position after much consideration.

However, early in February 1776, he was invited to dine with Lord Sandwich, Sir Hugh Palliser and Mr Stephens, the Secretary; when a proposed expedition was discussed and the difficulty of finding a Commander to take charge, Cook jumped up and said that he would go.

Formal application was made at the Admiralty Office on the 10th of February, which was accepted that same day, he left immediately for Deptford and hosted his Pendant on the H.M.S. Resolution.

On 29th February, 1776, Captain James Cook was unanimously elected a Fellow of the Royal Society for his treatment of Scurvy, which was the scourge of Shipping in those days almost decimating more that half the Crew over a long voyage.

Their sixth and last child, Hugh, was born at their Home at 88 Mile End Road, on Thursday the 23rd of May, 1776.

Cook set sail in the Resolution from Plymouth Harbour on his third and final Voyage on the 12th of July; to determine the position and extent of the west side of North America, its distance from Asia, and the practicability of a northern passage to Europe.

Then on the 30th of November, 1776, Sir John Pringle, President of the Royal Society, in his address to the Fellows, announced that the Copley Gold Medal had been conferred on Captain Cook for his Paper on the Treatment of Scurvy.

On Sunday, 17th January, 1779 the Resolution anchored in Karakakoa Bay, Hawaii, and was met with a large number of canoes laden with provisions for sale.

Cook was treated as a God and bestowed with gifts and presents of food.

Shortly after leaving the Bay on the 4th of February a gale sprang up and the Fore and Main Topsails were split, towards morning of the next day the wind died away and the sails were replaced.

A second gale came that night causing more damage to the sails, at daybreak the Foremast was found to be so badly sprung that it was absolutely necessary for it to be unstepped for immediate repairs.

Cook decided to return to Karakokoa Bay as no other convenient place was known, the Ships anchored there on the 11th February: but this time there were no canoes to be seen.

The friendship that they were shown previously had disappeared and anything that could be moved was stolen by the natives.
During the night of the 13th of February the Discovery's Cutter was stolen, a little before 8am the next day Captain Cook, Lieutenant Phillips, a Sergeant, Corporal and seven Marines left the Ship for the Village of Kowrowa to meet with King Terreeoboo to arrange for the return of the Cutter.
Terreeoboo knew nothing about the stealing of the boat but agreed to accompany Cook, with his two sons, and go aboard the Resolution.
A large crowd had gathered on the beach when the party returned to the boats: they did not want their King to leave and forced him to sit down.
After trying for some time to persuade the natives to allow Terreeoboo to go with him, Cook gave up as he felt that it could not be done without a great risk of bloodshed.
Unfortunately, just at this time news arrived that a Chief of the First Rank had been shot and killed; the natives were seen to be donning their war mats, one man armed with a stone in one hand and a large iron spike in the other threatened Cook in a very insulting manner.
Cook told him to keep quiet, but he only became more furious; Cook fired a charge of small shot into him, but his mat saved him from injury.
Stones were thrown at the Marines, and one of the Chiefs attempted to stab Lieutenant Phillips but was knocked down with a butt of a musket; the stone throwing became heavier, and the Marines responded with a volley but before they had time to reload the natives rushed them, killing four out of the seven and wounding the rest.
Cook was now close to the water's edge, and had turned round to order the boats' crews to cease firing and pull in; he was struck on the head and stabbed in the back, falling down with his face in a pool of water.
As soon as he fell a great shout arose, he was dragged ashore, and the natives fell upon him stabbing him unmercifully.
Phillips and his wounded Marines plunged into the water and, covered by musket fire, gained the boats.
An effort was made to obtain the body of Cook and the Marines that had been killed; but they had been taken away and cut to pieces. On the 15th of February Captain Clerke formally took over Command of the Resolution; later that evening one of the natives that had proved friendly arrived in a small canoe bringing a bundle containing the flesh of Cook's thighs, saying that the body had been burned and the limbs distributed amongst the chiefs.
In the morning of the 20th the Foremast of the Resolution was stepped and rigging commenced, later that day chief Eapoo appeared with a large body of natives bearing a parcel wrapped in cloth containing some of Cook's bones.
The next day, Eapoo again appeared with all the remaining bones that he could possibly recover.

"The 21st February, 1779. At sunset the Resolution fired ten
minute guns, with the colours half staff up, when the remains
of our late Comm'dr. were committed to the deep."

Last Will & Testament
I James Cook, Commander of his Majesty's Sloop the Resolution - being of sound and disposing mind memory and understanding (praise be to God) do make and publish this my last Will and Testament in the manner following (that is to say) First my Will is that all my just debts and funeral expenses be fully paid and satisfied and after payment thereof I do hereby give and bequeath to my dear Father Mr. James Cook of Redcar in the County of York for and during his natural life one annuity or clear yearly stun of Ten Pounds Ten Shillings to be paid and payable to him by my Executrix and Trustees therein after named half yearly by even and equally portions at Michaelmas and Lady Day. The first payment to begin and be made on such as those Feasts which shall first and next happen after my death and I do charge and make chargeable the whole of my real and personal Estates with the payment thereof accordingly also I give to my dear and loving wife Elizabeth Cook all my leasehold Messuage tenement and premises with the appurtenances wherein I now dwell situate and being in Mile End old Town in the County of Middlesex for the term of her natural life and after her decease I give the same to all my children wheather (sic) born in my lifetime or in due time after my death in equal shares and proportions also I give to each of my sisters Christiana Cocker and Margaret Fleck the sum or legacy of Ten Pounds and I give to my good friends Thomas Dyall of Mile End Old Town aforesaid Gentleman and Richard Wise of Rumford in the County of Essex Gentleman Ten Pounds apeace (sic)as a mark of great regard I have for them and as to all the rest reside and remainder of my real and personal Estates of what nature and kind so ever the same shall happen to be at the time of my decease I give devise and bequeath one third part thereof to my said wife Elizabeth Cook for her own proper use and benefit forever and I give devise and bequeath the remaining two third parts thereof unto my said wife and unto the said Thomas Dyall and Richard Wise to hold to them and the survivors and survivor of the his her or their Executors Administrators or assigns in trust nonetheless for the ese (sic) and benefit of all and every my child and children whether born in my lifetime or in due time after my decease in equal shares and proportions and my Will is that their portion and portions shall be placed out at interest upon Governments or such other securities as my said Trustees or the survivors or survivor of them shall think fit until such time and times as the same shall become payable as herein after is mentioned that is to say my Will and I do hereby direct that the portion or portions of such of them as shall be son or sons shall be paid to him or them at his or their age or ages or twenty one years and of such of them as shall be a daughter or daughters upon her or their attaining the age of 21 yrs or upon the day or days of their Marriage or Marriages which shall first happen provided nevertheless such Marriages be had the consent of my said wife but not otherwise. Provided also and I do hereby give my full power and authority to my said Trustees and the survivors of them his her or their Executors and Administrators to apply such part of the portion or portions of my said children till same shall become payable in placing him, her or them out apprentice or apprentices or otherwise in their advancement in the World as they in their discression (sic) shall think fit and in the mean tine I order and direct that the interest dividends and produce of their said portions be paid and applied in and towards their maintenance and education respectively and my Will is and I do hereby declare that if any or either of my said children shall happen to die before his her or their portion or portions shall become payable then the portion or portions to him her or them so dying or so much thereof as shall remain unapplied for the purpose aforesaid shall go to the survivor or survivors of them and shall be paid and payable to him her or them in such and the dame manner as his her and their original portion or portions is and are made payable as aforesaid, also my will is that my said Trustees shall not be answerable or accountable for any loss that may happen in placing out my said estates as aforesaid or otherwise unless such loss shall be occasioned by or through their willful default or neglect and that they shall not be answerable the one for the other of them but each of them for his her or their own act and deed, only I do also direct that they shall be indemnified of from and against all losses and damages which they shall sustain by reason or on account of the trust thereby reposed in them and I do hereby nominate constitute and appoint my said wife and the said Thomas Dyall and Richard Wise joint Executrix and Executors of this my Will and Trustees on behalf of my said Children and hereby revoke all former Wills.

I declare this to be my last Will and Testament in witness whereof I have to this my last Will and Testament consisting of two sheets of paper set my hand to the last sheet in my hand and seal to the last sheet thereof the fourteenth day of June in the year of our Lord, one thousand seven hundred and seventy six.

Jas. Cook

Signed sealed published and declared by the said Testator as and for his last Will and Testament consisting of two sheets of paper in. the presence of us who at his request and in his presence and in the presence. of each other have subscribed our Names as Witnesses to the due execution.

Allan Bassett
Nath'l Austen ) Clerks to
Joseph Neeld ) Mr. Bassett Jas. Cook
20th January, 1780

Elizabeth Cook, Widow the Relict of the Deceased and Thomas Dyall two of the Executors
above named were duly Sworn, power reserved of making the like Grant to Richard Wise the other Executor whenever he shall apply for the same.

Before me and. Coltee Ducarel.

Proved at London the 24th day of January, 1780 before the Worshipful Andrew Coltee Ducarel, Doctor of Laws and Surrogate by the Oath of Elizabeth Cook, Widow of the Relict and Thomas Dyall two of the Executors to whom Admon was Granted having been first Sworn Duly to Admit power reserved of making the like Grant to Richard Wise the other Extor when he shall apply for the same.

15th March, 1780

Richard Wise. the other Executor was duly Sworn before me.
And, Coltee Ducarel.
Geo. Byworth Surrogate.
Clk. to Mr. Marsh

Proved at London the 20th day of March, 1780 before the Worshipful Andrew Coltee Ducarel, Doctor of Laws and Surrogate by the Oath of Richard Wise the other Extor to whom Admon was granted having been first Sworn Duly to Admin.


Cook's Father, James, who was living with his Daughter Margaret Fleck, died at Redcar, North Yorkshire, on the 1st of April, 1779, not knowing that his son had been killed; he was buried the same day at St. Germain's Churchyard, Marske-by-the-Sea.
Hugh Cook a Student at Christ College, Cambridge, contracted Scarlet Fever and died on Saturday the 21st of December, 1793, and is buried with his Mother, Brothers and Sister in the Church of St. Andrew the Great, Cambridge.
Two months later the last of the Children of Captain James Cook and Elizabeth Batts was found lying on the seashore of the Isle of Wight, he was their first born and was named James after his Father.
He had followed in his Father's tradition and was an Officer in the Royal Navy, Stationed at Poole, Dorset.
On the Friday the 24th of January, 1794, he received from Captain Yeo, Commanding Officer of the Station, his Orders to take Command of the Sloop-of-War 'Spitfire', lying at anchor in Portsmouth Harbour. He started immediately in an open boat, manned by Sailors returning from leave, the boat was rather crowded there was a strong ebb tide against them and a fresh wind; it was growing dark.
He never reached his Ship, his body with a wound to the head and stripped of all money and valuables was found on the Beach, Isle of Wight, the next day.
The boat was found later broken up but no trace of any of the Crew was discovered.
His body was brought over to Portsmouth and then taken to Cambridge, where it was laid in the same Grave with the remains of his brother, Hugh.
Elizabeth, Cook's Wife, was now alone, she left their Family Home at Mile End Old Town and purchased a house at Clapham where she lived with her Cousin, Admiral Isaac Smith who was unmarried, until her death on Saturday the 15th of May, 1835; aged 93 years.

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